-

 Leibniz, Zuse German Inventions Planck, Einstein

Inventions, innovations or discoveries known or generally recognised to be German.

Main source: Wikipedia, abbreviated version, youtube, et.al.

 

 

  Famous inventors, Discoverers and Engineers (direct links!):

 

 - The movable-type Printing Press by Johannes Gutenberg 15th century: the most important of the second millennium.[11]  - Time Life 1997,

  -   - "the most influential person of the second millennium" A&E Network 1998, "Biographies of the Millennium".[11]

 - Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion by Johannes Kepler. Pocket Watch by Peter Henlein. Newspaper by Johann Carolus.

  -

 - Calculus[298] + Leibniz's Notation[299] by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: 1675 Integral symbol [301] + Binary Numeral System.

 - First Automatic Digital Computer(!) (Z3) by Konrad Zuse[5] + commercial computer (Z4)  & High-level Programming Language[6]

  -

 - Air transportation: Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin,[7] Otto LilienthalHugo Junkers...

 - Bicycle (dandy horse, "Laufmaschine") 1817 by Baron Karl von Drais[568][569]

 - Car / Automobile by Karl Benz [579][580] ...on four wheels, by Gottlieb Daimler[584] ...motorcycle ...1885 by Daimler + Wilhelm Maybach.[581] 

 - Space rocket + NASA Saturn V Moon Rocket / Moon landing by Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun.

  -

  -  Modern World View:

 - Special Relativity + General Relativity theories / Gravity by Albert Einstein in 1905 + 1915.

 - Quantum Mechanics by Max Planck, with major contributions by Werner Heisenberg + Max Born.[9] 

  -

 - X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen.[10] Microbiology by Ferdinand Cohn + Robert Koch.

 - Electromagnetic Radiation, pivotal to modern telecommunication by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.[8] Radiochemistry + Nuclear Fission by Otto Hahn.

 

 Christmas Market  - Telescope  - Calculator  - Wheelchair  - Oktoberfest  - Accordion  - Complete blood count  - Telephone transmitter 

 - Contact lenses  - Pension insurance  - Gramophone record  - Bodybuilding  - Teddy bear  -  Radar system  - Mass–Energy Equivalence 

 (E = mc2)  - Laundry detergent  - Coffee filter  - Passenger airline  - Echo sounding  - Parachute  - Electron microscope  -  TV Station 

 - SMS  - Tea bag  - YouTube  - Combined oral contraceptive pill  - Morphine  - SIM card - Christmas tree  - Refrigerator  -  Aspirin 

 -  Antibiotic  - Condom  -  Tape recorder 

 

 

 

      Follow the specific links in wikipedia!

1434

The world's first Christmas Market (Striezelmarkt) in Dresden[515]

1517

Protestantism and Lutheranism by Martin Luther[516]

1600<

16th century: Modern Christmas tree[517][518]

1608

Telescope by German-Dutch Hans Lippershey[419]

1623

Mechanical Calculator by Wilhelm Schickard[296][297]

1650

First vacuum pump by Otto von Guericke[420]

1654

Magdeburg hemispheres by Otto von Guericke[421]

1655

First self-propelled wheelchair by Stephan Farffler[567]

1663

First electrostatic generator by Otto von Guericke[422]

1665

Integral symbol by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz[301]

1673–1676

Leibniz formula for π by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz[300]

16xx

Calculus[298] + Leibniz's notation[299] by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

   

1700~

Clarinet by Johann Christoph Denner in Nuremberg[402][403]

1700<

17th century: Easter Bunny[519]

1776

Illuminati by Adam Weishaupt[521]

1795

Least squares by Carl Friedrich Gauss[302]

   

1800

Late 18th century: German idealism by Immanuel Kant[501]

1801

Discovery of ultraviolet by Johann Wilhelm Ritter[425]

1803–1827

First isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in Paderborn; first as a pain medication; commercial in 1827 in Darmstadt by Merck.[319]

1810~

Gaussian elimination by Carl Friedrich Gauss[303]

1810~

Skat card game in Altenburg[557]

1810

Oktoberfest, the world's largest Volksfest,[522] in Munich

1812–1858

Grimms' Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm[232]

1813

Gauss's law by Carl Friedrich Gauss[426]

1814

Discovery of Fraunhofer lines by Joseph von Fraunhofer[427]

1814–1816

Metronome by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel and Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel[405]

1817

The first bicycle (dandy horse, or Laufmaschine in German) by Baron Karl von Drais[568][569]

1817

Tachometer by Diedrich Uhlhorn[570][571]

1820

Galvanometer by Johann Schweigger in Halle[431]

1827

Gauss map[305] and Gaussian curvature[306] by Carl Friedrich Gauss

1827

Ohm's law by Georg Ohm[432]

1830

or earlier: Accordion in Nuremberg[409]

1830s

Kindergarten concept by Friedrich Fröbel[233]

1832

First synthesis of chloral hydrate + hypnotic drug,[320] by Justus von Liebig Giessen;[321] Oscar Liebreich hypnotic + sedative into medicine in 1869.

1834

First practical rotary electric motor by Moritz von Jacobi[572]

1835

Tuba by Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz in Berlin[410]

1837-1950

Interlingua by Alexander Gode[240]

1838

First electric boat by Moritz von Jacobi[573]

1839

Advent wreath by Johann Hinrich Wichern[523]

1845

Kirchhoff's circuit laws by Gustav Kirchhoff[434]

1850

Formulation of the first and second law of thermodynamics by Rudolf Clausius[435][436]

1850~

Advent calendar by German Lutherans;[524] the modern version was created by Gerhard Lang (1881–1974) from Munich[525]

1850s

Microscopic pathology by Rudolf Virchow[325]

1850–51

Ophthalmoscope by Hermann von Helmholtz[326][327]

1897–1899

Aspirin by Felix Hoffmann or Arthur Eichengrün at Bayer in Elberfeld[343]

1852

First complete blood count by Karl von Vierordt[328]

1859

Riemann hypothesis by Bernhard Riemann[309]

1861

First telephone transmitter(!) by Johann Philipp Reis;[441][442] he also coined the term "telephone"[442]

1865

Concept of entropy by Rudolf Clausius[444]

1864–1875

Centrifuge by brothers Alexander + Antonin Prandtl from Munich[443]

1870–1895

Modern refrigerator and modern refrigeration by Carl von Linde.[2][278][279][280]

1874

Cantor's first uncountability prooand set theory by Georg Cantor[310]

1876

Otto engine by Nicolaus Otto[574]

1877

Microphone by Emile Berliner[413][414]

1879

Empiric-experimental Psychology by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig[505][506]

1879–1881

First electric locomotive[575] and electric tramway (Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway) by Siemens & Halske[576][577]

1881

First modern caesarean section performed by Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer (introduction of the transverse incision technique)[333]

1880s

The German Empire (1871–1918)  - first modern welfare state / Otto von Bismarck,[507]

1882

Adhesive bandage (Guttaperchapflastermulle) by Paul Carl Beiersdorf[334]

1882

Discovery of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria which causes tuberculosis, by Robert Koch[335]

1882

Trolleybus (Electromote) by Werner von Siemens[578]

1883

Health insurance (Krankenversicherung) [508]

1884

Discovery of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae which causes diphtheria, by Edwin Klebs + Friedrich Löffler[336]

1884

Discovery of the vibrio cholerae bacteria which causes cholera, by Robert Koch[338]

1884

Accident insurance (Unfallvers.) [508]

1885

First Automobile (Benz Patent-Motorwagen) by Karl Benz in Mannheim[579][580]

1885

First motorcycle (Daimler Reitwagen) by Gottlieb Daimler + Wilhelm Maybach.[581] 

1885

The called motorcycle of Hildebrand & Wolfmüller from 1894 (created by Heinrich + Wilhelm HildebrandAlois Wolfmüller)

1885

First modern internal combustion engine by Gottlieb Daimler + Wilhelm Maybach[583]

1886

Hole punch and ring binder by Friedrich Soennecken in Bonn[283]

1886

Discovery of anode rays by Eugen Goldstein[450]

1886

First automobile on four wheels, by Gottlieb Daimler[584]

1886

Motorboat by Lürssen, in commission of Gottlieb Daimler + Wilhelm Maybach, in Bremen[585]

1887

Gramophone record by Emile Berliner[414][415]

1887

First parabolic antenna by Heinrich Hertz[452]

1887

Discoveries of electromagnetic radiationphotoelectric effect and radio waves by Heinrich Hertz[451]

1888

First successful afocal scleral glass contact lenses by Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick[341]

1888

Driver's license by Karl Benz[586]

1888

The world's first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch[587]

1888

Flocken Elektrowagen, regarded by some as the first real electric car,[588] by Andreas Flocken in Coburg.

1889

Pension insurance (Gesetzliche Rentenvers.) [508].

1890

Diphtheria antitoxin by Emil von Behring[342]

1890

Plastilin by Franz Kolb[558]

1891

Taximeter by Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn[590]

1893

Diesel engine, diesel fuel and biodiesel by Rudolf Diesel in Augsburg[591]

1893

Lilienthal Normalsegelapparat, the first aeroplane to be serially produced,[592][593] by Otto Lilienthal

1893

Zeppelin, the first rigid airship,[594] by Ferdinand von Zeppelin[595]

1895

Discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen[455]

1896

First truck (Daimler Motor-Lastwagen) by Gottlieb Daimler[597]

1897

Scientific-Humanitarian Committeefirst LGBT rights organization in history,[509][510] founded by Magnus Hirschfeld in Berlin

   

1900

Planck constant and Planck's law by Max Planck[458]

1900<

Marxism by Karl Marx + Friedrich Engels[502]

1900

Hilbert space by David Hilbert[316]

1900–1930

Quantum mechanics by Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg[459]

1901

Adhesive tape by company Beiersdorf AG[285]

1901

Modern bodybuilding by Eugen Sandow[530]

1901

Mercedes 35 hp, regarded by some as the first real modern automobile,[600] + drum brake.[601]by Gottlieb Daimler + Wilhelm Maybach.

1902

Teddy bear (55 PB) by Richard Steiff[560]

1904

First radar system (Telemobiloscope) by Christian Hülsmeyer [462]

1905

Mass–energy equivalence (E = mc2)[463] + special relativity[464] by Albert Einstein

1906–1912

Third law of thermodynamics (Nernst's theorem) by Walther Nernst[466]

1907

(Modern) Laundry detergent (Persil) by Henkel[286]

1907–08

Mensch ärgere Dich nicht board game by Josef Friedrich Schmidt[561]

1907–1910

First synthesis of arsphenamine, the first antibiotic,[347] by Paul Ehrlich + Alfred Bertheim.[348] 1910 by Hoechst under Salvarsan.[349]

1908

Paper coffee filter by Melitta Bentz[287]

1909

First intrauterine device (IUD): by Richard Richter (of Waldenburg, then part of Germany; in 1909).

1908–1911

Creation of dihydrocodeine[350]

1909

The world's first passenger airlineDELAG in Frankfurt (1909).[6079]

1912

The world's first diesel locomotive by Gesellschaft für Thermo-Lokomotiven Diesel-Klose-Sulzer GmbH / Munich[609] + Borsig / Berlin[610]

1912

The company also employed the first flight attendantHeinrich Kubis (1912).[608]

1912

Theory of Continental drift and the postulation of the existence of Pangaea by Alfred Wegener[271]

1912–1916

Invention of the modern condom by Poland-born Julius Fromm in Berlin[353]

1913

Echo sounding by Alexander Behm[467][468]

1915

Noether's theorem by Emmy Noether[470]

1915<

Modern parachute (the first collapsible parachute) by Katharina Paulus[553][554]

1915

The world's first all-metal aircraft (Junkers J 1) by Junkers & Co[611]

1916

The German Empire became the first country in the world to implement daylight saving time (DST)[511]

1920s

(Modern) hand-held metal detector by Gerhard Fischer[475]

1920s

Autogenic training by Johannes Heinrich Schultz[555]

1924

First human electroencephalography (EEG) recording by Hans Berger + the electroencephalogram + discovered alpha waves.[362]

1924–25

Bose–Einstein statisticsBose–Einstein condensate and Boson by Albert Einstein[479]

1927

Uncertainty principle by Werner Heisenberg[481]

1927

Free electron model by Arnold Sommerfeld[480]

1927

Uncertainty principle by Werner Heisenberg[481]

1928

Geiger–Müller counter by Hans Geiger and Walther Müller[482]

1928

First rocket-powered aircraft (Lippisch Ente) by Alexander Lippisch[613]

1929

First machine-produced tea bag (1929)  - by Adolf Rambold and Teekanne[289]

1929

Cardiac catheterization by Werner Forssmann[363]

1929

First intrauterine device (IUD): first ring (Gräfenberg's ring, 1929) used by a significant number of women by Ernst Gräfenberg.[351]

1930s

Critical theory by the Frankfurt School[512]

1930s

(Modern) Tape recorder by BASF (then part of the chemical giant IG Farben) + AEG in cooperation with the state radio RRG[251][252]

1931

Electron microscope by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll[483]

1933

Discovery of the Meissner effect by Walther Meissner + Robert Ochsenfeld[484]

1934

Fernsehsender Paul Nipkow (TV Station Paul Nipkow) in Berlin, first public television station in the world[253][254]

1936

The first operational and practical helicopter (Focke-Wulf Fw 61), by Focke-Achgelis[615]

1935

Richter magnitude scaleby Beno Gutenberg (together with Charles Francis Richter)[273]

1937

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Manfred von Ardenne[486]

1938

Discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn and Fritz Straßmann[487][488]

1944

First operational cruise missile (V-1 flying bomb) by Robert Lusser at Fieseler[398]

1948

Paralympic Games by German-born Ludwig Guttmann[539][540]

1949

The modern Tea bag (1949) by Adolf Rambold + Teekanne[289][290]

1949

Integrated circuit by Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG)[255][256]

1949

Development of the nuclear shell model by Maria Goeppert-Mayer + J. Hans D. Jensen[489]

1951

Airbag by Walter Linderer[618]

1953

Echocardiography by Carl Hellmuth Hertz (with Swedish physician Inge Edler)[369]

1961

Combined oral contraceptive pill by Schering AG[370][371]

1969

Articaine (Ultracain), a dental local anesthetic  - by pharmacologist Roman Muschaweck + chemist Robert Rippel (former Hoechst AG)[372][373]

1972

First home video console (Magnavox Odyssey) by German-born Ralph H. Baer[563][564]

1974

Playmobil by Hans Beck[565]

1980s

Atomic force microscope and the scanning tunneling microscope by Gerd Binnig[496][497]

1980

Quantum Hall effect by Klaus von Klitzing[495]

1984

Short Message Service (SMS) concept by Friedhelm Hillebrand[260]

1990

First radio-controlled wristwatch (MEGA 1) by Junghans[262]

1990~

Late 1980s and early 1990s: MP3 compression algorithm (fundamental for MP3 players) by i.a. Karlheinz Brandenburg (Fraunhofer Society)[261]

1991

SIM card by Giesecke & Devrient in Munich[263][264]

1995

The Settlers of Catan by Klaus Teuber[566]

   

2005

YouTube, co-founded by Jawed Karim[265]

2020

mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) based on research by Uğur Şahin + Özlem Türeci[376][377]

 

Anatomy

Archaeology

Arts

Astronomy

Biology, genetics and memory

Chemistry

Clothing, cosmetics and fashion

Computing

Construction, architecture and shops

Cuisine

Education, language and printing

Entertainment, electronics and media

Geography, geology and mining

Household and office appliance

Mathematics

Medicine and drugs

Military and (chemical) weapons

Musical instruments

Physics and scientific instruments

Sociology, philosophy and politics

Religion, ethics and festivities

Sport

Tourism and recreation

Toys and games

Transportation

 

© by Dr. Hilmar Alquiros, The Philippines  Impressum Data Protection Statement / Datenschutzerklärung